Posterior Vitreous Detachment – PVD

PVD, or Posterior Vitreous Detachment, is a common eye condition

Vitreous detachment - PVDAbout PVD vitreous detachment. The vitreous can shrink and detach as we age.

A PVD is a common eye condition and is normally harmless. The eye is a very complex organ, containing many parts that function as one in order to produce vision.

The center of the eye’s spherical shape is filled with vitreous humor — a clear, gel-like substance that helps the eyeball maintain its spherical shape. The vitreous lies between the lens (near the front of the eye) and the retina, the light-sensitive, inner lining of the inside of the eye.

The vitreous contains millions of tiny intertwined fibers that are connected to the retina from birth and throughout our younger years. As we age, the vitreous tends to contract and slowly pull away from the retina. The attached vitreous fibers usually break, allowing the vitreous to cleanly separate. Vitreous detachment is a common and normal aging change in the eye.

Sometimes, when the vitreous detaches, small pieces of scar tissue and fibers can break off and “float” around in the vitreous.

Risks of vitreous detachment

Vitreous detachment is most commonly seen in people over the age of fifty and is seen even more prominently as we grow older. In people over the age of 80, it is likely. People who have experienced a vitreous detachment in one eye are much more likely to get one in the other.

Vitreous detachment symptoms

In most cases, a PVD is not even noticed by the patient. However, floating spots in the vision, “floaters“, is the most commonly seen symptom of PVD, especially when they come on suddenly. Floaters can appear as small floating “specks” in the vision or globs of floating debris. They can even take on a “cobweb” appearance that can be large and dense enough to obscure vision. The objects seen floating around are actually the shadows being cast onto the retina by the debris in the vitreous.

Occasionally, flashes of light in the far peripheral vision can accompany a vitreous detachment. These flashes should be monitored closely. In some cases, a dilate eye exam is needed to check on the health of the retina.

Vitreous detachment treatment

Rarely, if floaters and vitreous debris becoming visually debilitating, a pars plana vitrectomy can be performed to clear the vitreous surgically.


Lucentis Eye Injection

Lucentis eye injection is a treatment for macular degeneration

Lucentis eye injection treatment for macular degeneration and vein occlusion

Wet macular degeneration is one of the most common causes of blindness, Lucentis eye injection is a treatment.

Lucentis eye injection is a modern treatment for wet AMD, which develops in about 1 in 10 cases of macular degeneration. Above is a video explaining how Lucentis eye injection is used to treat wet macular degeneration. There are two types of macular degeneration: dry and wet macular degeneration. In the wet form of AMD, abnormal blood vessels grow in the back of the eye. Sometimes these vessels leak blood or fluid that causes blurred vision or distorted vision. Without treatment, vision loss may be quick and severe.

The patient should consult their retina specialist / ophthalmologist about signs and symptoms of Lucentis side effects. Lucentis is an eye injection drug given by an eye surgeon. It is better and more effective than traditional laser eye surgery because it does not leave scarring in the macular central portion of vision. Lucentis was developed by Genentech and it is widely used for wet macular degeneration.

Lucentis side effects

Lucentis eye injection for treatment of macular degeneration has very few and rare side effects. The possibility of infection is extremely important to understand and the patient should consult their retina specialist / ophthalmologist about signs and symptoms of Lucentis side effects.

Other uses for Lucentis eye injection

Recently, Lucentis was approved for retinal vein occlusion and diabetic macular edema. These are two eye conditions that can cause profound vision loss. Adding Lucentis eye injection to the vitreo-retina doctor’s arsenal is a big advancement in the retina eye care field.

Diabetic macular edema is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the world. It is caused by weakened and leaky capillaries in the retinal vascular system, due to diabetes.

Retinal vein occlusion can also cause macular edema. This condition, also known as cystoid macular edema, as responded well to Lucentis eye injection. Lucentis is now a mainstream treatment for these two eye conditions.

How vision works | an animated guide to the human eye functions

The Eye and Vision – How vision works

How vision works in the human eye | an animationThe eye is a complex optical system – very similar to a camera.

Vision begins when light enters the eye through the cornea, a powerful focusing surface. The cornea is what gives us clear vision. From there, it travels through clear aqueous fluid, and passes through a small aperture in the iris called the pupil.

As muscles in the iris relax or constrict, the pupil changes size to adjust the amount of light entering the eye. Light rays are bent and focused through the lens, and proceed through a clear jelly-like substance in the center of the eye called vitreous humor, which helps give the eye form and shape. When light rays finally land on the retina, the part of the eye similar to film in a camera, they form an upside-down image. The retina converts the image into an electrical impulse that travels along the optic nerve to the brain, where it is interpreted as an upright image.

This animation above depicts the light rays’ path through the eyeball as they pass through the cornea, the eye’s lens and vitreous and striking the surface of the retina, the back inner “wallpaper” in the globe of the eyeball.

All of these structures of the eye mentioned here are critically important in the process of visual acuity. Any disease or condition that affects any of these eye components can cause vision decrease or loss, or even blindness.

Legal blindness is a very depressing and costly problem in the United States and the rest of the world. Low vision can lead to depression and decrease the ambulatory abilities of its victims. It is important to treat these secondary complications as well as the eye disease or conditions. Eye disease illustrations can be seen here.

Pars Plana Vitrectomy Eye Surgery

Vitrectomy is a surgery to remove the vitreous humor from the eye.

Pars plana vitrectomy animation

Vitrectomy is when the eye surgeon removes the vitreous from the inside of the eye.

Pars plana vitrectomy is a general term for a group of operations on the deeper part of the eye, all of which involve the removal of some or all of the vitreous – the eye’s clear internal jelly. Pars plana vitrectomy eye surgery is sometimes done to remove eye floaters or vitreous hemorrhage inside the eyeball. In a vitrectomy, the surgeon “vacuums” out the normally clear, jelly-like fluid that fills the inside of the eye, the vitreous humor, with a surgical instrument called a vitrector.

The vitrectomy procedure

A pars plana vitrectomy is normally an outpatient procedure and very rarely entails an overnight stay in a hospital. Either local or general anesthesia numbs and sedates the eye surgery patient. A special sterile instrument, called a speculum props the eye open during the procedure. The surgery technicians will cover the other eye with a sterile drape and closed the entire time.

The procedure begins with the vitreo-retina eye surgeon making a small 2 millimeter slit in the side of the eye before he inserts an infusion tube in order to maintain constant intraocular eye pressure. He then inserts a tiny microscopic cutting device into another small incision in the sclera, or the “whites” of the eye. This device then aspirates, or vacuums out, the cloudy vitreous fluid.

An aqueous fluid replaces the vitreous fluid that is now missing, in order to keep the normal roundness of the eyeball and to maintain normal intraocular pressure in the eye. The artificial fluid used is saline solution. The eye will naturally replace this artificial fluid with its own clear fluids, within 24 hours.

Risks of vitrectomy eye surgery

As a result of highly technical surgical instruments, pars plana vitrectomy surgery has become very safe during the past couple decades due to evolving technologies. New smaller instruments and novel incision techniques reduce the risks of vitrectomy surgery greatly. However, as with any eye surgery, there are risks. These risks include, but are not limited to:

  1. Endophthalmitis eye infection
  2. Cataract
  3. Retinal detachment
  4. Glaucoma
  5. Bleeding in and around the eye
  6. Macular edema, swelling inside the eye
  7. Additional surgery
  8. Complete loss of the eye / vision

Consequently, special caution and consideration is taken by the eye surgeon and ophthalmic staff to avoid any of these risks and complications.

Avastin macular degeneration treatment

Avastin eye injection is a treatment for macular degeneration and other eye diseases

Avastin treatment for macular degeneration

Avastin side effects and complications

Avastin, also called Bevacizumab, is a drug that treats eye conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema and retinal vein occlusion. This drug was first FDA approved for cancerous tumor treatment but ophthalmologists quickly discovered its promise for the treatment of leaking blood vessels caused by many common eye diseases. Eye doctors are using the drug “off-label” ever since. Since Bevacizumab is not FDA approved for use in the eye, its intraocular use is considered off-label. However, Avastin is now a mainstream treatment for wet macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema.

Many “mainstream” treatments are done off-label – some examples are Aspirin, Botox and many of the common depression treatments.

Intraocular use has become very popular and Bevacizumab is currently one of the most commonly used anti-VEGF medications in the United States.


Avastin eye injection side effects

Although quite rare, some complications and side effects of Bevacizumab eye injections are being reported. Virtually every single intraocular medication has a risk of side effects. We will attempt to cover Bevacizumab complications in this Avastin Side Effects article.

Let’s look at those initial Avastin side effects findings for cancer treatment:

Complications when Avastin is given to cancer patients

When doctors treat patients with certain types of cancer with intravenous Bevacizumab, a small amount of those patients experience serious and sometimes life-threatening complications.

It is important to remember that these patients are also given 400 times the amount of the drug normally given to eye disease patients. Furthermore, cancer patients receive the treatment much more frequently.

One study of patients who were treated with Bevacizumab intravenously reports only a mild elevation in blood pressure.

Bevacizumab eye injection side effects and risks

Since the beginning of mainstream Bevacizumab use in the eye, the occurrence of side effects and complications from Bevacizumab are low.

In most cases, a patient who receives Bevacizumab for an eye disease is in overall better health than a cancer patient – this would presumably reduce the risk of Avastin side effects, just on the basis of whole body health.

The head-to-head data comparing IV Bevacizumab with intraocular Avastin side effects show the Bevacizumab given into the eye has none of the side effects of the IV treatments.

Most common Avastin side effects

After more than ten years of using intraocular Bevacizumab, ophthalmologists see a very small amount of side effects. However, these are the most common Avastin complications seen:

  • Red, irritated eye
  • Bloodshot eye
  • Small specks or bubble shapes in vision
  • Elevation in eye pressure
  • Tearing

Here are some very uncommon Avastin complications:

  • Inflammation inside the eye
  • Cataract
  • Retina or vitreous bleeding
  • Retinal detachment
  • A decrease in eye pressure
  • Cornea problems
  • Intraocular infection (endophthalmitis)


Allergic reaction to Avastin eye injection

Any medication has the potential to cause allergic reactions in a small number of people. Symptoms of an allergic reaction can include a rash, hives, itching, shortness of breath, and rarely, death (extremely rare). If you have allergies to other medicines, foods, or other things in the environment, or if you have asthma, you should let your ophthalmologist or his staff know. Being prone to allergies could be a red flag for your doctor to choose a different mode of treatment.


Please understand that this page is NOT to be taken as medical advice. You should speak to your medical doctor and/or ophthalmologist about any concerns or possible side effects or complications from Avastin or any other eye medication. assumes no responsibility in terms of the accuracy of this content. All information on this website is certainly not intended to replace or even augment the relationship between a patient/site visitor and his/her physician. JirehDesign makes no claims to medical/surgical/anatomical accuracy of the images on this website. The images are not to be used for medical advice.

Cataract surgery vision correction with premium lens animation

Cataract Surgery Vision Correction

Cataract surgery with IOL implant animation

This animation depicts modern cataract surgery with phacoemulsificaiton of the lens and IOL implantation.

Laser cataract surgery is an FDA-approved procedure. This vision correction procedure does not actually use a laser to remove the cataract but femtosecond laser performs many of the traditional steps in cataract surgery.

Cataracts are the leading cause of visual loss in adults age 55 and older and the leading cause of blindness worldwide. By age 65, most people develop cataracts. In the United States, cataract surgery is very successful. In fact, through advances in both cataract surgery and intraocular lenses (IOLs), more people gain back useful vision through this modern lens surgery.

Femtosecond laser cataract surgery

Recently, advances in laser technology have led to the development of a new laser surgery technique for treating cataracts. This new technique is known as femtosecond laser surgery.

What is a cataract?

A cataract affects the lens of the eye. The lens is normally clear, but with age and certain eye conditions, a cataract can develop, causing the eyesight to become blurry, as light cannot pass through the lens correctly. Cataracts can develop in one or both eyes. The cloudier the lens, the worse the vision and the greater the need for the surgery.

Cataract surgery

In traditional cataract removal surgery, an incision is made with a steel blade or a diamond knife. The surgeon then removes the broken up pieces of the natural lens. Afterwards, the surgeon positions a new lens (intraocular lens) in the eye to replace the old. Cataract extraction is one of the safest surgeries to be sure. However, its quality and precision depends on the surgeon’s skill.

Removing the cataract involves creating an opening in the extremely thin membrane (capsule) that covers the natural lens of the eye. Traditional methods using handheld surgical tools are generally safe but the new femtosecond laser process has been shown to be more accurate by far in over 90% of all cases studied.